LoRaWAN (Long Range Wide Area Network) is a low-power, wide-area networking protocol designed for long-range communication. It excels in scenarios where low data rates and long battery life are critical. LoRaWAN finds applications in smart agriculture, environmental monitoring, asset tracking, and smart cities.
For instance, it can be utilized to monitor soil moisture levels, track wildlife movements, optimize waste management systems, and enable parking space management.
The LoRaWAN® network architecture uses a star-of-stars topology, with gateways relaying communications between end-devices and a central network server. The gateways connect to the network server via regular IP connections and function as a transparent bridge, transforming RF packets to IP packets and vice versa. The wireless connection makes advantage of the LoRa physical layer's Long Range capabilities, providing a single-hop link between the end-device and one or more gateways. All modes offer bidirectional communication, and multicast addressing groups are supported to make optimal use of spectrum for tasks such as Firmware Over-The-Air (FOTA) upgrades or other mass distribution messages.